Too often, the discussion regarding summative v. formative assessment seems to navigate toward a critique of certain assessment formats and their place in either the summative or formative camp. For me, this is an irrelevant discussion and can distract us from developing balanced assessment systems that seek to match assessment methods most appropriately with the intended learning. In short, an assessment’s format has little, if anything, to do with whether an assessment is formative or summative; what matters is its function.
To determine whether an assessment is formative or summative ask yourself this one simple question: Who is going to use the assessment results?
See, if you take those assessment results and use them to provide useful advice to students on how the quality of their work or learning can improve AND you don’t “count” them toward any type of report card or reporting process then they’re formative; even more formative if the students self-assessed and set their own learning goals. If, however, you are determining how much progress a student has made as of a certain point in the learning AND are going to include the result in a cumulative report card or other reporting process then they’re summative. Whether you convert and/or combine the results into another format (letter grade, etc.) is really not relevant.
In essence, if the assessment results from your classroom leave the classroom and inform others about how students are doing then you’ve got a summative assessment. If the results stay within the classroom and are used for feedback, that’s formative.
Here’s the rub – every assessment format has the potential to be formative or summative since it has everything to do with the function (or purpose) of the assessment and nothing to do with format.
Now, I’m not here to suggest that a short/selected answer assessment is the deepest, most meaningful assessment format, however, in some cases a short/selected answer assessment can be the most efficient means by which a teacher might know whether his/her students have mastery over the key terminology in a science unit. This demonstrated mastery will allow the teacher to feel more confident about moving on to more meaningful learning opportunities. What the teacher does with the results will be the determining factor as to whether it was a formative or summative event. If the results “count” then it was summative; if it doesn’t “count” then formative. Summative and formative assessments begin with two very different purposes; knowing our purpose for assessing is the first key to developing high quality, accurate, and clear assessment information.
Anyway, the discussion/debate regarding what quality assessments look like is one for a future post. For now, know that every assessment format can be a viable option and it’s what happens with the results that matters the most.
Incidentally, for another recent and interesting take (one which I happen to agree with) on summative assessments, please check out Darcy Mullin’s post here.